Trauma ‘has these profound effects that can start very early in life, but that are often dismissed,’ [Loyola professor James Garbarino] says. In one after-school program in a Chicago housing project he studied in the 1980s, he observed three- and four-year-olds playing ‘funeral’ regularly. ‘They would make a coffin out of their blocks, and take turns being the dead child and the grieving parents.’